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Saturday, 11 November 2017

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घड़ी की सुईयों
के साथ,
मैं बढ़
चला हूँ,
मृत्यु की ओर,
मृत्यु जैसे
ठहरा हुआ समुद्र,
मृत्यु जैसे
ठण्डी बर्फ..............
एक रोज
मृत्यु में झाँककर,
पढूंगा मैं
अपनी आत्मकथा ....
पाप और पुण्य
से परे,
मैं देखूंगा
मृत्यु के उस पार
जीवन विन्यास ....
                       - सिद्धान्त
                         नवंबर १२, २०१७
                         रात्रि ०१:१७ 

Friday, 3 November 2017

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तुम्हारी तस्वीर

एक रोज
मेरी सारी कवितायेँ
पंख लगा
उड़ गई,
बच गया तो
कागज का कोरापन,
देर रात,
मैंने उस
कोरेपन पर
तुम्हारी तस्वीर
उकेरी है,
जब रंग पनपेंगे,
एक मुठ्ठी रंग
तुम्हारी तस्वीर पर
डाल दूंगा।
अब जब जब
तुम्हारी याद
मैं तुम्हारी
यही तस्वीर
सुनो कि
मेरे मन के
किसी कोने में,
तुम अब भी
बाकी हो......

             - सिद्धांत
             अक्टूबर  ३०,२०१७
             ४:१३ पी. एम.

Saturday, 21 October 2017

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Studies on certain aspects of seed borne fungi. I. Fungi of Pennisetum typhoides (Burm f.) Staph. &Hubb.

Association of fungi with seeds and more particularly with economically important ones was well known to early seed pathologists. Vigorous efforts to control seed borne pathogens have been made by various workers throughout the world. In some cases suitable control measures were investigated and recommended. The problem of control, however, could not be solved in many cases due to lack of sufficient information regarding the association of fungi with seeds of a particular plant distributed in different localities with diverse environmental conditions. The seed of fungal population is greatly affected by various factors such as aerial spores agricultural operations (viz., harvesting and threshing), transit of seed, method of storage and moisture content of the seed. Sinha and Wallace (1965) and Wallace and Sinha (1962) worked out the ecology of seed mycoflora in Canada. A thorough knowledge of the ecology of seed fungi is a prerequisite before control methods for seed borne fungal disease can be developed. It was therefore, desired to investigate the effect of different ecological conditions of the seed fungi of certain crop plants and using the information obtained to determine the best method of control. 

Seed of Bajra (Pennisetum typhoides (Burm f.) Stapf. & Hubb.) collected from four districts, viz., Gorakhpur, Hardoi, kanpur and Unnao of uttar Pradesh, from May to July, 1970 were assayed for the associated seed mycoflora. The seed fungi of samples stored at different temperatures of- 1,8,12,20,25,33,50 and 70°C. To investigate the effect of leaf extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. and Datura metel Auct. non L., the fresh leaves of the plants were collected. These were washed thoroughly with sterile distilled water (SDW) to remove the phyllosphere microflora. Five hundred g of each plant were mortared separately. The juice was then squeezed, filtered and autoclaved. Various dilutions of the resultant liquid (2,3,4,5,7,8,10,12 and 25%) were prepared in SDW. 

Twenty-nine fungal species were isolated from the seeds collected from the four localities. 22,17,18 and 16 species were noticed on Gorakhpur, Hardoi, Unnao and Kanpur respectively.  It was noted that higher number of fungal species were obtained from the seed stored between 8-33°C with the maximum at 25°C. The leaf extract of the Calotropis procera and Datura metel tried against seed fungi possessed selective antifungal properties. The Datura  extract proved more inhibitory than that of Calotropis. Increase in the extract concentration of both plants decreased the growth of the dominant fungus, Aspergillus flavus in culture. The germination percentage of P. typhoides was also lowered when treated with the culture filtrate of A. flavus. The extract of the two plants were also slightly toxic to P. typhoides at higher concentration. 

Cited this as: Kanaujia R.S. and R.R. Mishra (1977): Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi.I. Fungi of Pennisetum typhoides (Burm f.) Stapf. & Hubb. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 13(3-4): 56-66.  

Friday, 22 September 2017

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अंधभक्ति .......

शब्दों से खेलता है,
चाशनी में लिपटे
उसके शब्द
तुम्हें आकर्षित करते हैं,
और तुम
चीटियों के माफिक
खींचे चले आते हो,
वह सम्मोहन करता है 
तुम सम्मोहित हो जाते हो,
और कुछ  इस तरह 
वह सत्ता पर 
काबिज हो जाता है
विश्वास है मुझे,
एक रोज 
जब उसका सम्मोहन कम  होगा 
वह चाशनी में लिपटे 
कुछ और शब्द 
फेंक देगा,
तुम फिर 
चीटियों के माफिक 
खींचे चले आओगे

                               - सिद्धान्त 
                                 22 सितंबर, 2017 
                                 7 :55  पी. एम.


Wednesday, 13 September 2017

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Influence of different nitrogen rich supplements during cultivation of Pleurotus florida on corn cob substrate

 The cultivation of white rot edible fungus Pleurotus florida was performed in polybags. The corn cob was employed as basal substrate while eight different additives such as urea, ammonium sulphate, gram flour, soybean meal, ground nut cake and molasses were used with corn cob. Three different levels of variable combinations with corn cob were evaluated in response to different parameters of mushroom viz., mycelial growth, spawn running, primordial initiation, fruit body yield and its biological efficiency. Each additive at different combinations showed variable impact on the different stages of mushroom life cycle. The primordial initiation was observed for the first time during 20.2–35.1 days. The biological efficiencies in every supplemented set were increased over un-supplemented control set. Increasing the level of additives, the biological efficiency was negatively affected at higher levels. The cotton seed cake was found the best supplement producing 93.75% biological efficiency while soybean meal was the second best additive producing 93.00% yield. The highest growth rate, rapid mycelia run, early primordial initiation, highest yield and biological efficiency were recorded in the combination of corn cob and cotton seed cake at 2% (98 + 2) level. (See original)

Cited this as:
Naraian, R., Sahu, R.K., Kumar, S., Garg S.K., Singh C.S. and R.S. Kanaujia (2009). Influence of different nitrogen rich supplements during cultivation of Pleurotus florida on corn cob substrate Environmentalist. 29: 1-7.

Tuesday, 27 June 2017

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Nutritional value and antioxidant properties of most widely consumed cultivated mushrooms in South East Nigeria

Mushroom contain a multitude of bioactive compound with nutritional value. Among the bioactive molecules, phenolic compounds are the most responsible for their antioxidant activity. In the present work Pleurotus tuber-regium, Auricularia auricula-judae and Lentinus squarrosulus, three edible mushroom species collected from Nigeria, were analyzed for their Nutritional value and antioxidant activity. For macroelement Ca has the highest value 101 (mg/kg), Mg has 45.28 (mg/kg) in A. auricula and Na lowest with 1.20 (mg/kg) in P. tuber-regium while microelement Zn has 43.56 (mg/kg) in P. tuber-regium and Mn has 0.06 (mh/kg) in L.squarrosulus. Glycosides and Anthraquinones were not present in the three samples and Alkaloids not present in P. tuber-regium. Carbohydrates were the most abundant macronutrients, followed by proteins and ash. Fructose, mannitol and trehalose were the prevalent sugars, but glucose was only found in P.tuber-regium. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated over  saturated fatty acids. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were abundant in the three samples. Oxalic and fumaric acids were quantified in the three samples; quinic acid was only present in L. squarrosulus, and malic and citric acids were only found in A. auricula. p-Hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic and cinnamic acids were quantified in all the species, while p-coumaric acid was only found in P. tuber-regium,. This species and A. auricula revealed the highest antioxidant properties, being L. squarrosulus more effective in radicals scavenging activity and reducing power, and A. auricula-judae in lipid peroxidation inhibition, which is related with the highest amounts in phenolic compounds, respectively.

Cited this as - Ukaogo O.P., Siddhant, Nnorom I.C., Ogbonna N.C. and Onyema C.T. (2017): Nutritional value and antioxidant properties of most widely consumed cultivated mushrooms in South East Nigeria. The Future Scientist Symposium 2017. Organized by  Lodoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; May 29-31, 2017. p.54.

Saturday, 6 May 2017

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India has a vast potential of agricultural wastes. The major agricultural sources are livestock and crop residues, tree wastes and weeds. With the introduction of high yielding varieties and adoption of intensive system of cropping, large quantities of crop residues (1500 lakh tone per year) along with huge amount of grasses and weeds are discarded as waste. The direct application of these wastes to the soil-plant system for crop production may create potential hazards related to nutrient management, trace elements, trace organic chemicals, pathogens and physical property of soil. Moreover, because of their wide range of C:N ratio, these agricultural waste are known to reduce the availability of important mineral nutrients to growing plant through immobilization into organic form and also produce some phytotoxic substances during their decomposition in field. Burning of such waste causes severe pollution of land and water on local as well as regional scale. This also adversely affects the nutrient budget in the soil. Mycoremediation is the use of fungi to degrade pollutants from the environment. Fungi especially mushrooms have the innate capability to breakdown wide range of agro-waste, disassembling their long-chained polymer into simpler form by producing variety of extracellular enzymes. Hence, biological pretreatment of such wastes with mushrooms is not only economically and environmentally attractive but also it provides a rich addition to the diet in form of functional food - The mushrooms. The agro-wastes left after mushroom harvest is called Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) which can be further composted to manure by using waste decomposer (Cellulolytic fungi) through rapid composting method. Microbial enrichment of manure can be done for improving its nutrient status. These products can be used to promote organic farming in view of the growing demand for safe and healthy food and long term sustainability and concern on environmental pollution associated with indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals.(See Original)

Cited this as: Siddhant, O.P. Ukaogo, Ruchira Singh and Mahesh Kumar (2017): Mycoremediation can save the world. National seminar on "Bio-degradation of Wildlife, Environment and Biodiversity" organized by Department of Zoology, Gandhi Faiz-e-aam College, Shahjahanpur (U.P.). March 19-20, 2017. p. 92 (Abstract)