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Tuesday, 29 November 2016

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AYODHYA, A NEW HABITAT FOR GENUS MORCHELLA

Morchella, a true morels belonging to class Ascomycetes, are amongst the most highly prized fungi in the world. It is commonly known as morel, dryland fish, pine cone, guchchhi and sponge mushroom. It is easy to spot due to its distinctive honey combed upper portion which is composed of a network of ridges and pits. Occurrence of 18 species of Morchella are reported from 28 countries, where in altogether 14 species are reported to be edible and used as food and 5 are used medicinally. In India, majority of Morchella species are reported from North-Western Himalayan region especially Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and hilly tract of Uttar Pradesh which are known to be main Morchella producing sites in India. However, occasional reports revealed its occurrence from Assam, Amritsar, Madhya pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. It was also repoted from Ayodhya during December 2013, 2014 and 2015. Occurrence for Morchella Spp. during three subsequent years indicated its permanent habitat at Ayodhya. 

Cited this as: Siddhant, Ruchira Singh, C.S. Singh, Swapanil Yadav and R.S. Kanaujia (2016): Ayodhya, a new habitat for Genus Morchella. National seminar on "Advances in Plant Science Frontier: Development and Environment" organized by Department of Botany, Gandhi Faiz-e-aam College, Shahjahanpur (U.P.). November 26-27, 2016. P.83-84  (Abstract)
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Oxytocin: A myth hormone for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eous).

Recent studies indicate that increased misuse of Oxytocin (C43H66N12O12S2) injection in fruits and vegetable farming sectors where it is applied either through injection, spraying or with irrigation to plant especially Cucurbits to enlarge their size in short time. Keeping this in mind, various dilutions of Oxytocin viz., 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 % v/v were sprayed on the mushroom beds just after the spawn run to evaluate their effect on the yield and biological efficiency of Pleurotus eous. The oxytocin treatments neither minimized the production cycle nor it enhanced mushroom yield in relation to the size of fruit bodies. We do not recommend its use for the production of food commodities because of its health hazards.


Cited this as: Siddhant O.P. Ukaogo and Ruchira Singh (2016): Oxytocin: A myth hormone for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eous). National seminar on "Advances in Plant Science Frontier: Development and Environment" organized by Department of Botany, Gandhi Faiz-e-aam College, Shahjahanpur (U.P.). November 26-27, 2016. P.53  (Abstract)


Thursday, 27 October 2016

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Wet rot disease of Cereus hexagonus and fruit rot of Syzygium cumini, new to India

During an extensive survey of fungi from Faizabad (U.P.), the author came across two important diseases, viz., wet rot of Cereus hexagonus caused by Periconia byssoides Pers ex Me'rat and fruit rot of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels caused by Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenb. ex Corda, new to India. The specimen has been deposited in the Department of Botany, K.S.S. P.G. College, Faizabad under Accession No. RSK 415 and 558. The brief description of the disease is given below: 

Wet rot disease of Cereus hexagonus:
(Caused by Periconia byssoides Pers ex Me'rat, Collected from Ayodhya. Feb 17, 1979)
              The unbloomed floral buds due to open in 5-6 days showed small, numerous water soaked area on outer surface of hypanthium. Thy enlarged irregularily and involved the entire outer surface of the perianth followed by the formation of light gray conidiophores and condia within 4-5 days. The floral bud became pulpy and finally shed off.

Fruit rot of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels:
(Caused by Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenb. ex Corda; Collected from local fruit market at Ayodhya; June 08, 1980)
               The disease started as small water soaked areas on fruit surface particularly near placental region. The entire fruit surface was covered within 48 hours thereafter, the fruit became soft and pulpy. 

Periconia byssoides and Rhizopus nigricans have been found to cause rot disease in number of plants but not on related hosts described above. This is a new report for country. (PDF Copy at Slideshare.net)

Cited this as: R.S. Kanaujia (1982): Wet rot disease of Cereus hexagonus and fruit rot of Syzygium cumini, new to India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 12(3):323.


Tuesday, 18 October 2016

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Sclerotial rot of Stapelia gigantea new to India

Stapelia gigantea, an ornamental succulent of family Asclepiadaceae was observed infected by a rot in Ayodhya of Faizabad district during September 1979. The fungus was isolated on PDA medium and was indentified as Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. The specimen has been deposited in the Department of Botany, K.S.S. P.G. College, Faizabad (Accession No. 649). 
The disease stars as small pin head size, black submerged spots near the ground which gradually enlarge and merged together to form irregular larger patches. The spots progress upward and within a fortnight involve the entire plant that by this time shows characteristic dry rot. The pathogenecity test performed by standards methods gave the positive results.
Sclerotium rolfsii is known to cause rot disease of Dianthus sp, Delphinium ajacis and Polyanthus tuberosa and Zinnia in India. Its association with Stapelia gigantea is a new record. (PDF copy at Slideshare.net)


Cited this as: R.S. Kanaujia (1982): Sclerotial rot of Stapelia gigantea new to India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 12(3):328.

Wednesday, 12 October 2016

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Record of Periconia byssoides on Four 'O' clock plant from India

In September, 1978, the author observed plants of Mirabilis jalapa L. infected by wet disease at Faizabad. On examination the pathogen responsible for the disease was found to be Periconia byssoides Pers. ex Me'rat. The disease starts as a small gray patch at the nodes. The colour of infected region gradually changes to light brown due to the production of codiophores and conidia of pathogen. Within 12-15 days of infection the region of the plant above infected nodes showed wilting, finally the rotting and droping of the plant above it. The specimen has been deposited in the Department of Botany, K.S.S. P.G. College, Faizabad as Herbarium No. RSK-260. The present case is a new host record for India.  (PDF copy at Slideshare.net


Cited this as: R.S. Kanaujia (1982): Record of Periconia byssoides on Four 'O' clock plant from India. Indian Journal Mycology and Plant Pathology. 12(2): 243.

Saturday, 1 October 2016

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Periconia rot of Capsicum annuum in India

Periconia byssoides is known to parasite a number of plants in India but so far not reported on Capsicum annuum L. The small spherical to irregular spots of light brown colour gradually enlarged and merged subsequently to form continuous dark brown to black patches on stem, leaves and fruits. The whole plant were soon infected and ultimately dried within 20-25 days. The damage was about 70-85 per cent. The fungus was isolated on PDA medium by usual methods. The specimen has been deposited (No. RSK-142) in the herbarium of Botany Department, K.S.S. P.G. College, Faizabad. (PDF copy at Slideshare.net)

Cited this as: R.S. Kanaujia and R.S. Verma (1979): Periconia rot of Capsicum annuum in India. Indian Phytopathology. 32(3): 445.